What does a 95% effective vaccine mean?

A  Pfizer COVID-19 (C19) vaccine said to be 95% effective in a recently-completed clinical trial is being widely welcomed, particularly by the governments that have already bought it. However, what does 95% effective mean? Effective against what – C19, the virus that causes C19 (SARS-CoV-2), hospitalisation, severity, death? Further, does 95% effective mean that if

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Nutritional Bullshit

From its origins exploring the science of cooking, 6XC has more recently evolved into the science of eating – an examination of the nutritional science underlying common diet and health advice. This post is a perspective on what I’ve learned during the time I have spent on this topic. Spoiler alert: I guess the title

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Protein Leverage

Protein is our primary biology. Indeed, the word comes from the Latin ‘protos’, meaning first. Our proteins are made up of various combinations of 20 amino acids (AA), 9 of which we must get from our diet (the essential amino acids, EAA), and the rest we can make ourselves. Still, the proportion of EAAs (nearly

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Insulin and Cardiovascular Disease

There are many potential mechanisms surrounding the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), spanning metabolism, environment (including lifestyle), genetic disposition and a host of associated risk-factors from various causes. Amid all of this, one hypothesis stands out in public and health perception – cholesterol. More specifically, the cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. I

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Is Fibre in the diet essential?

No. Even the current (2015-2020) Dietary Guidelines for Americans  (as issued by the US Department of Agriculture) have acknowledged that: “Other food components, such as dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to be nutrients.” Nevertheless, recommendations to eat fibre riddle the document.  That quote is hidden away in Appendix 6 – Glossary of

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